俄罗斯国际外交俱乐部新闻中心主任Ingrid Kim联合国发言

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 俄罗斯国际外交俱乐部新闻中主任Ingrid Kim女士发言
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   第五十七届联合国社会发展委员会会议发言嘉宾 Ingrid Kim女士

新闻业在社会中最重要的功能是向公众传递信息。它是民主制度的重要组成部分,因为它带来透明度,并为公民提供所需的信息,以便就他们的生活和政府作出最佳决策。新闻自由对于确保公众获取信息至关重要。这种自由受到对联合国已经记录的记者和民间活动家的不受惩罚的报复的危害。

社会使记者更难以保持可信度。世界需要记者,因为他们致力于发现真相和保护公民。

 在许多国家,信息的自由流动是可能的,而无需对独立记者进行攻击。在一些国家,根本没有独立的记者。即使在言论自由相当大的国家,也常常存在正式和非正式的障碍,无法公开,传播和讨论应该成为公共信息的内容。

记者,民间社会活动家和学术研究人员是少数专业人士将这些法律工具用于公共服务目的的人之一。

确保获取信息还需要对独立媒体专业人员进行广泛培训,以便他们能够为调查性新闻以及所有发展报告领域提供所需的信息自由。

虽然有超过一百个联合国成员国已经制定了自己的信息获取法,但大多数这些法律最近才通过,而且在许多国家,有效实施尚未开始。即使在西方历史悠久的民主国家中,对公众信息权的法律承认也是一个相对较新的发展。

这一新承诺对全球信息自由流动和独立媒体发展具有潜在的变革性影响。联合国认为,每个人都有权获得国家掌握的任何信息;以及行使或保护任何权利所需的任何其他人持有的信息。确保访问将需要对独立媒体进行广泛培训,以便为调查性新闻提出所需要求。

世界各国政府从未共同承认人们应该有权获得政府所有信息的原则 - 除非官员能够说明为什么不应公开具体信息,无论是出于隐私还是国家安全或其他明显合法的理由。

这一新承诺对全球信息自由流动和独立媒体发展具有潜在的变革性影响。

后一条款强调了“公众获取信息”应包括获取与人民权利有关的任何信息,以及扩展到国家和全球发展的原则,包括来自私营公司和其他非政府来源的信息。

正如所有国家在减少不平等或加强妇女权利和环境保护方面可以做得更好一样,所有国家也可以采取更多措施“确保公众获取信息”。

对于大多数发展中国家和较发达经济体的许多边缘化社区而言,确保公众获取信息不仅需要法律改革。它还需要缩小数字鸿沟,最终目标是普及和免费(或至少是负担得起的)互联网服务,并确保世界的在线信息资源对所有人开放。

联合国新的目标是“大幅增加信息和通信技术的获取,并努力在最不发达国家提供普遍和负担得起的互联网接入”,从而解决了这一目标。

联合国成员国仍然必须商定一套指标来监测可持续发展议程的目标和指标。这需要不同的国家优先事项,具有不同的指标,从扩大互联网接入和法律改革到系统化在线发布官方信息。在联合国报告过程中应该承认这些不同的国家需求和出发点。让我们希望联合国成员国承诺为所有人提供免费和公开的信息,并确保公众获取信息和保护基本自由。

众所周知,美国和俄罗斯的新闻业方法截然不同。其中一个最大的区别在于国际新闻的空间量。在俄罗斯,它仍然很高,尽管一些趋势表明俄罗斯媒体越来越关注内部问题。

如此广泛的信息观虽然在美国非常罕见,但在欧洲范围内是自然而普遍的。美国的相对孤立和偏僻使得其人口对于看起来如此复杂且远离其日常生活的微小细微差别和阴谋无动于衷。也许是因为这个原因,美国记者经常要强调他们的新闻报道的网站的准确位置。

美国和俄罗斯新闻业的另一个显着差异是编辑在多大程度上允许表达作家的个人观点。对于记者来说,在美国和其他民主国家中对观众强加观点或缺乏培训,这被认为是不好的品味和证据,在这些国家,个人主权被视为包含知识分子的独立,最重要的是。然而,为了公平起见,我们需要承认,这种态度在实践中并不总是显而易见的。

在俄罗斯媒体上,记者的个人评论,评价和评论的陈述仍然是一种常见的做法。虽然一些新闻服务采取了完全相反的方法,旨在客观地说明事件,但这种趋势并没有成为主导。

俄罗斯和美国新闻业的第三个区别在于培训和专业化。美国的一名记者通常被认为拥有普遍的能力,这意味着他或她可以根据具体的任务或多或少成功地报道当地的新闻或娱乐,法律事务或经济。另一方面,俄罗斯记者将自己局限于他们在职业生涯早期选择的主要专业领域。因此,他们的培训相当广泛,并且在相当狭窄的应用领域内,而不是美国的标准,通过这些标准,记者通常拥有更广泛和更理论的模式。这一优势使美国同事能够从一个覆盖范围迁移到另一个覆盖范围,并且很容易适应他们新节拍的风格规范。相比之下,俄罗斯人经常表现出对其领域的学术知识,并且他们拥有各种相关学术学位并不罕见。

我意识到,由于当代俄罗斯新闻业的条件迅速变化,以这种方式推广是危险的。今天,政府并不是媒体的唯一所有者和出版商,因为它曾经是苏联时期,激烈的竞争迫使记者和编辑成为第一个推销他们的故事,有时导致不准确或不正确的新闻报道。由于不再需要等待某人“在那里”批准发布信息,俄罗斯新闻服务已经变得更加自由,并且善于与外国同行竞争,首先打破这个故事。

今天,那些感兴趣的俄罗斯报纸读者可以从各种各样的意见和偶尔无限制的新闻自由中受益,这种自由远远超过了美国这里所接受的限制。

我相信,俄罗斯大众媒体总体上已经设法通过报道这些问题的人的学术背景以及居住在国内的穆斯林人民的悠久历史来逃避这一问题。

俄罗斯和美国新闻传统之间的差异确实存在;我希望我已经建议他们并不完全是他们通常想象的那样。是否有可能或必须实现新闻报道风格的一致性仍然是一个悬而未决的问题。然而,鉴于各自社会的历史和社会现实截然不同,如果目前这是完全可取的,那么更有趣的问题可能是。

  第五十七届联合国社会发展委员会美德国际代币VITA项目嘉宾合影
  第五十七届联合国社会发展委员会美德国际代币VITA项目会议


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